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“GREAT TRIBULATION”: The Life and Times of Hugh Mundell


Film producer and lifelong reggae fan Jerry Stein travels to Jamaica in 1978 with sound engineer Jeff Roth to film what will ultimately become Word, Sound, and Power, an engrossing film about Jamaica’s finest group of reggae instrumentalists, the Soul Syndicate Band.  While he is on the island filming for the documentary, Stein has the unlikely opportunity to interview and film Hugh Mundell and Augustus Pablo together.  The resulting film footage, which features Pablo and Mundell reasoning and performing acoustically, is the only footage in existence featuring Mundell and Pablo together.  The shoot takes place at Pablo’s home in the hills of Port Maria, JA.

Stein spoke with me about the experience in an interview for this piece:

“Pablo actually lived on a Catholic school’s grounds up in the hills at Port Maria.  That’s why we got those shots of the kids staring into the camera.  It was just amazing stuff.  Each kid had a different facial expression…I don’t think they had ever seen a camera before.”

“So the day after we shot up in the hills at Pablo’s in Port Maria I get a call from Hugh Mundell saying that Pablo wants to talk with me.  So I’m like ‘oh shit, what is this about?’  I was staying downtown so I went to the market and bought all this fresh fruit you know, and Pablo was supposed to come down at 6:00 pm.  So Mundell shows up and he says ‘you gotta come up to Pablo’s place in Papin.’  I was like ‘what?  You guys were supposed to meet down here.’  Mundell says ‘no, you gotta come with me.’  It was almost like a strong-arm situation.  He had his posse with him and I don’t know if you know this but Mundell was kind of a wise guy.  I mean he was a kid, like seventeen.  He had this attitude you know.  So we get in the elevator at the Intercontinental hotel and he lights up this big spliff right there in the elevator.  The doors open on the lobby and there’s two security guards there and they are really pissed.  So they start coming down on him like they were gonna rough him up or something and Mundell jumps into this crazy kung-fu stance.  I had to step in and cool everything down and I take Mundell outside and he just starts laughing and the vibes were level.”

“We jump into this car with Mundell and his posse.  It’s dark outside now.  They drive to an area in north Kingston that was really rough…gang kids on the streets and at the corner, and there are no street lights for some reason.  Mundell and his crew get out and walk up the street and they just left me there.  It was not cool.  I was getting really freaked out.  They come back about 15-20 minutes later and we drive to Pablo’s house in Papin.  I walk in and Pablo is there with a straight looking white english man…it was his attorney.”

“So I say ‘what’s up?’  And Pablo is like ‘well I’m not really cool about the footage.  I need you to sign this contract.’  Now, we had already signed contracts to make sure that Pablo would get paid if the footage was used in the final cut of the film.  But now he wants to talk about it and have his guy draw something up.  So I’m sitting there and Pablo is playing these amazing riddim tracks that I had never heard before.  Mundell is sitting beside me on a bar stool and he’s singing along to these tracks and it is just the most amazing, beautiful thing I had ever heard.”

Stein is eventually forced to negotiate new terms to the contract with Pablo’s attorney.  Evidently, the terms drawn up by the attorney were very confusing and involved a sliding scale based on how many minutes Pablo is featured in the final cut.

Stein says to the attorney “give me a blank sheet of paper.”

Stein draws a line and places his signature on the line.  He then tells the attorney to draw up whatever terms Pablo wants and to use his signature to sign the contract.

“Look man, I was not trying to rip off Pablo,” Stein explains.  “The guy is a legend and I was going to give him the terms he wanted.  I wasn’t thinking about money, I was just so glad that I had the footage.  So that was my first experience with Pablo and Mundell.”

It may have been his first, but it surely was not his last.

Jump to several years later.  The year is 1981 and Stein is hired by the family that owns The Stone night club in San Francisco, CA and the Keystone club in Berkeley, CA.  Upon hiring Stein as a booker, the clubs become top spots to see reggae in the Bay area.  After booking sold out shows for the great Joe Higgs at The Stone, Stein has the opportunity to bring Hugh Mundell to northern California to perform in the US for the very first time.

Joe Higgs Live at The Stone (Photo: Jerry Stein)

Joe Higgs Live at The Stone (Photo: Jerry Stein)

Mundell makes his US concert debut at The Stone, San Francisco in July 1981.

“I think I brought Joe Higgs over first.  Joe Higgs sold out so I reached out to Mundell’s father Alvin to see about bringing Hugh to The Stone to perform.  Alvin was an attorney and a real straight shooter.  We became fairly good friends.  In fact, I still have the letter he sent me asking that I look out for his son and take care of him while he’s in the States.  Anyway, Mundell comes out for sound check.  I had set up a three-camera video shoot to capture his first performance.  Took over the executive’s offices and put monitors everywhere so he could have a live mix.  I had an entire film crew in there to get this performance.  Well, he sees the cameras and he freaks out.  He’s like ‘nah mon, I not gonna perform if you are doing video…we gotta work some tings out.’  So I’m like ‘well, what do you want to work out, this is for you, I will turn the tapes over to you tonight after the show.  If you want to release it you can, you know, whatever you want.’”

‘No mon, I’m not doin’ it,’ says Mundell.

“It would have been the most priceless footage you know.  A three-camera shoot, it wasn’t film, it was video.  I had a sound guy from the biggest television station in the Bay area doing a live mix.  But he just wouldn’t do it.  He would not come on stage unless I shut the cameras.  I did get it on audio.  It’s called ‘Hugh Mundell Live at The Stone’ and it’s pretty good.  The only thing was, the local band I hired to back him up just wasn’t up to the level of Mundell’s singing, I don’t think they took enough time to learn his songs. But the show sold out, both shows, the one at The Stone and the one the following year at The Keystone over-sold.  The reggae fans here loved the guy.”

Mundell blazes through a set of seven songs that night “Let’s All Unite,” “Great Tribulation,” “Short Man,” “Run Revolution A Come,” “Jah Fire Will Be Burning,” “Feeling Alright Girl,” “Time and Place,” “Africa Must Be Free By 1983,” and “Africa Dub.”  The backing band (a local Bay area reggae band) struggles at times to keep up with Mundell, but to no avail.  Mundell’s voice is strong, almost flawless throughout.  The audio mix is phenomenal with lots of echo and dub effects, giving the show an otherworldly vibe.

It is on this initial trip to northern California that Mundell forms a bond with the San Francisco-area Order of Olufunmi, especially the Reverend Ashiya Odeye and his assistant Sadie McFarlane.  The the Iniversal Order Of Olufunmi is a Rastafarian church and religious order that was established in 1976. The Order, which is still active today, is livicated to the service of the Creator (JAH) through “works for the upliftment and advancement of, and service to, humanity, as shown through the works of His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, Empress Menen, and the teachings of Patriarch Joseph Hibbert.”

I spoke with the Reverend Ashiya Odeye about his relationship with Hugh.

“Yes we knew Hugh, myself and Sadie.  Sadie was my assistant at the time and heading up the Reggae Calendar, a publication we started together through the Order Of Olufunmi. Our Order housed him while he was in the Bay Area those 7 months, and I spent much time reasoning with him at Reggae Street our headquarters where he stayed most of the time he was here. We were all very close. We did all the hands on stuff with him, like getting him to gigs, supplying equipment, etc. I had just spoken to him about coming back to the States to do a tour we had been planning the day before he was murdered. I can still feel the pain and sense of loss we all felt then.”

On October 24, 1981, Mundell performs at the first annual Reggae Sunblast, which is held at the 8,500-seat Greek Theatre.  Also on the bill are Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths, Joe Higgs, The Wailers Band, and Wailing Souls.  This is a notable show for several reasons.  It is the first live performance by The Wailers Band outside of Jamaica since the death of Bob Marley on May 11, 1981 (they played Reggae Sunsplash in August 1981).  Also, it is the U.S. debut of the Wailing Souls, the much heralded vocal group from the Trench Town area of Kingston, JA.


According to Bay area radio DJ and event organizer Doug Wendt, Mundell’s performance is nearly flawless and captivates the 5,000 event attendees, despite the fact that Hugh is suffering from a severe cold.

Hugh Mundell at Sunblast (Photo: Benjamin Ailes)

Hugh Mundell at Sunblast (Photo: Benjamin Ailes)

In reviewing Mundell’s performance in the local city paper, music journalist Bruce Dancis writes the following:

“Nineteen year old Jamaican singer Hugh Mundell, backed by Ras Kidus Roots Connection, contributed a brief set that was marred by the fact that he was obviously feeling the effects of a cold. This was a disappointment, because the angelically voiced singer possesses one of the purest voices in popular music.  Ironically, in Mundell’s prior Berkeley appearance this past July, his glorious vocals were impeded by poor communication with his support band; this time around,   Mundell   and   the   band were more connected, but the singer’s illness prevented him from launching into the spirited performance of which he is capable.”

It has long been rumored by fans and collectors that an audio recording exists of Mundell’s performance at the Reggae Sunblast.  Unfortunately, the only audio recording of the performance that exists is a short three-minute audio clip in which the MC introduces Mundell to the crowd.  The remainder of the recording is corrupted and unlistenable.

Mundell appears in the Bay area once again in December 1981 where he plays a reggae roots festival along with Wailing Souls, Raskidus, Joe Higgs & Unity, and Uprising at the Oakland Auditorium on December 11th and the Japan Center Theater on December 12th.


Stein brings Mundell back to Berkeley on May 30, 1982 for another performance.  This show is also captured brilliantly with an audio recorder, and Mundell was in top form once again.  Mundell does not disappoint, however, once again he is at the mercy of a mediocre local backing band who has no business sharing the stage with the young prodigy.  The band’s performance is uninspired, but Hugh triumphs despite their seeming lack of skill and interest.


Mundell performs material from all three of his albums.  “Lets All Unite,” “Walk With Jah,””King of Israel,” “Jah Fire Will Be Burning,” “Jah Will Provide,” “Great Tribulation,” “Are You Feeling Alright Girl?,” “Run, Come, Revolution,” “Africa Must Be Free By 1983,” “Walk With Jah Jah (reprise).”  The highlight of the set is a 20-minute plus version of “Africa Must Be Free by 1983,” complete with nyabinghi drumming and dub effects.  This show is clearly his best when compared with the other shows that are in circulation.

For his next album, Mundell abandons the Rockers sound and vibe altogether, choosing instead to record with producer Henry “Junjo” Lawes and the mighty Roots Radics band at Channel One.  Junjo Lawes rules the sound system circuit in the early ’80s, with a huge militant sound laid down by the Roots Radics. Lawes and the Radics are on a mission:  to take the popular roots reggae sound, speed it up and play it harder.  No apologies.  Harder.  Faster.  Stronger.  Lawes’ incendiary sound launches a new generation of toasters straight to the top of the charts. Unfortunately, this musical shift is accompanied by a thematic change as well, as the lyrics become less serious, less impactful, and at times border on ridiculous.  Many roots artists are not willing, or are not able to adapt to this revolution in sound, however, Mundell is ready, willing, and able.  Over the previous two years, Mundell sharpened his toasting skills recording clever deejay tracks under the pseudonym ‘Jah Levi.’


As Jah Levi, Mundell records a string of successful singles including “False Rumour,” “Zion A Fe Lion,” “Let Jah Be Praised,” “Love and Unity,”and “Selassie I Veranda” (on which he spars with Junior Delgado).  “Zion A Fe Lion” was laid down by Pablo using the Wailers band on the riddim.  The tune even features Bob Marley on rhythm guitar.  Pablo highlights Bob’s guitar skank in his dub mix, which has appeared under the title “Bob Shuffle Lion Dub.”

According to many reliable sources, Mundell records with Stranger Cole on a track titled “I’m Living” as Jah Levi.  The single, produced by Oswald Creary for Half Moon productions, is released as a 7” single on the Half Moon label, and also appears on the Half Moon compilation double-LP titled Glory, Dominion, Majesty, Power.  Although this track is co-credited to Stranger Cole and Jah Levi, it is highly unlikely that Mundell laid down vocals for the track as there is no record indicating that he ever recorded with Oswald Creary or Stranger Cole.

1982’s Mundell, which features the superb production of Lawes and solid riddim tracks by the Roots Radics, is a stellar album that still stands the test of time. “Rasta Have the Handle” and “Tell I a Lie” are Lawes at his absolute best, lighting up the backing with soulful brass solos from Felix “Deadly Headly” Bennett’s sax and Nambo Robinson’s trombone.  “24 Hours a Day” features masterful guitar work by Winston “Bo-Pe” Browne. Gladstone Anderson’s masterful piano work highlights “Red Gold & Green.”  This album is a classic in every sense of the word and is eclipsed only by Africa Must Be Free By 1983.  Mundell is released on the Greensleeves label in the UK and on Randall Grass’s Shanachie imprint in the U.S.

Lawes feeds the sound systems with a clip of vinyl singles from the album.  in 1981 he issues “Tell I A Lie”/”Jah Music” on a Jah Guidance 12.  In the UK, Greensleeves issues the popular “Can’t Pop No Style” on a 12″ (GRED 054) backed with Junior Reid’s “Know Myself.”  Linval Thompson issues limited copies of “Red, Gold, and Green” as a 7″ on his Thompson Sounds label.


There is no doubt that Mundell is at his best when Pablo is at the helm.  Pablo’s ethereal and majestic instrumentals soar when Mundell blesses them with a vocal.  And while Mundell is today considered a great reggae roots album by many, music critic and writer Vivian Goldman skewers it in the August 21, 1982 issue of New Musical Express, recasting Mundell as “Hugh Mundane.”

Throughout 1982 and 1983 Mundell continues to perform sparingly and lends his talent to several different projects.  He voices the title track and “Rastafari Tradition,” and records background vocals for Augustus Pablo’s forthcoming Earth’s Rightful Ruler album.  Mundell also plays percussion on Augustus Pablo’s Rockers Meets King Tubby In A Fire House (1980), Tetrack’s Let’s Get Started (1980), and the Rockers International album (1980).  He also lends his vocals to Scientist Wins The World Cup (1982).  At the same time, Mundell continues recording his own material with Justin Hinds at Music Mountain in Jamaica, owned by Chris and Steven Stanley and home to Tappa Zukie and The Skatalites among others.  This material will eventually be released as the Arise album on the Mun Rock label.

Henry "Junjo" Lawes (Photo: Pekka Vuorinen)

Henry “Junjo” Lawes (Photo: Pekka Vuorinen)

In the spring and summer of 1983, Mundell performs on the island sound system circuit with the likes of Barrington Levy, Burro Banton, Ranking Toyan, Junior Reid, and Elfigo Barker (Volcano Hi-Fi).  He also performs for Noel Harper’s Kilimanjaro Sound System with artists like Super Cat, John Wayne, Dirty Harry, Junior Reid, Madoo, Hopeton James, Puddy Roots, and Major Manzie.

Barrington Levy

Barrington Levy

In August 1983, Mundell, along with Junior Reid, represents Killamanjaro at Whitehall Avenue, Kingston.  With selector Ainsley on the turntable, Mundell and Reid bless several numbers, Mundell versioning “Reasons” and Reid voicing the “Some Guys” standard.

On September 7, 1983 Mundell and Junior Reid put in an impressive performance at Cassava Piece, Constant Spring, Kingston 8.  With Volcano’s supreme selector Danny Dread at the controls, Mundell and Reid spar over the “Diseases” riddim before they have a go at the “Betcha By Golly Wow” standard.  The highlight of the live session, however, is when Mundell versions his classic “Great Tribulation.”

Junior Reid

Junior Reid

In 1988, the Shanachie record label out of Ho Ho Kus, New Jersey issued the posthumous Blackman’s Foundation album, which includes  five tracks from Time and Place (1981) along with an additional four cuts from the same period. Composed primarily of tracks produced by Augustus Pablo, the riddims are solid and the track list includes a handful of Pablo’s best-loved Rockers-style arrangements.

I spoke with label chief Randall Grass about the album and how it all came together:

“My memory is a bit hazy, but as I remember, Hugh came to us through Augustus Pablo. Pablo might have even brought Hugh to our office around 1982, but I’m not sure about that. I think we were being presented with Hugh’s Time And Place album to license…and we felt it needed a couple more tracks.  We retitled it because it had been out already. Hugh was kind of at his height at that point because of the success of Africa Must Be Free By 1983 a couple years earlier so he was getting bookings for shows in the U.S. and I think was staying on the West Coast for awhile. But by the time we brought out Blackman’s Foundation, the first wave of excitement for roots reggae was waning, dancehall was taking off and it sold only modestly.

Hugh called us about putting out a new album.  The music was strong but we felt the market was too weak and I had to tell him that we weren’t interested. I felt bad about that. Hugh had taken me around when I first came to Kingston the year before, even bringing Yabby You to me when I remarked on how much I wanted to meet him (that resulted in us putting out Yabby’s One Heart One Love collection).  In fact, when Hugh was driving me around, the other people in the car were his girlfriend and Jr. Reid, at that time an unknown. I remember Jr. Reid saying to me ‘I can sing too!’ as we rode in the back of Hugh’s car. Not long after all this we got a call from Pablo….he said ‘dem shot Mundell!’ And that’s when we heard the terrible circumstances of Hugh’s death.”




  1. Peter van Arnhem says:

    How do I enter this works rasta?

    Bless Peter

  2. Great works Michael. Super informative and hits heavy to the heart as I love Mundell heaps. And thanks to all your contributors especially Roger.

    1. Many thanks for everything Dub.

  3. Leo Lion Hearted says:

    Hands down the best piece on the blessed youth! One ting : what happened to his killer? Was he tried?

  4. Milton Noones says:

    Good article. Didn’t know he was nicknamed the iceberg! Seemed a bit flaky about touring and showing up. Not a good way to run a career. It’s sad how many talented Jamaican artists have premature and tragic ends. The list is long.

  5. Sista Nyah Ites says:

    Big Respect . Was great to read <3 Very intresting

  6. indeo irie says:

    absolutely awesome article.The is the first time in over 30 years i,ve found so much info on hugh mundell,after collecting so much of his music on vinyl, i,m still deeply saddened by his death.I hope that generations to come will listen and be inspired by a truly great artist such as hugh mundell

  7. JS says:

    Brilliant article! Big up for your works!

  8. Greetings Ras….My name is Sal aka Ras Salvador Navarrete, I wrote the Jah Bull piece in 2000 for Small Axe. Jah Bull was my bredren and sadly passed on in 2005..he told me a lot of great storys of Hugh Mundell and their freinship, and I have always love Hugh’s singing voice and great chune’s! I Loved your story on Hugh Mundell ( I believe the most info on Hugh ever) and always good to see Pablo and the Rockers family mentioned also. Thanks for mentioning the Jah Bull artical, your story make a great companion piece to the Jah Bull story. Again great read Jah Live!!
    If anyone would like to read up the Woolton “Jah Bull” Harrison “Press Along Rasta” I have posted it here for you..Jah Bless http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/smallaxe/jahbullx.htm

  9. mickey rose says:

    has anybody noticed that hugh mundell did not sing in Jamaican patois his English was very good saw him live in Birmingham 1980 glad I did r,i,p rasta yout

    1. Thanks for reading? You see him at the Top Rank? Who else played? You remember anything from the show? Give thanks…Mike

      1. mickeyrose says:

        yes I to the best of my knowledge because it was 34 years ago big rasta turn out man and woman hugh mundell sang time to unite, Africa must be free,can’t pop no style, rastafari’s call and more ..when the show was over I had school the next morning..raspect

  10. Just really coming into the knowledge of Hugh Mundell’s music and legend… And I sincerely appreciate this IN DEPTH article on his life. He definitely had something special about him, kind of had a mystical demeanour/disposition. Gone much too soon. Give thanks, for this info and may his music live on!

    1. And, I also wonder what his problem was with video cameras… Why he was so reluctant to be on them? That footage from the San Fran gig would’ve been golden.

      1. he was only paid for the live performance. He was under the impression that maybe a documentary was being filmed, from which he would make no money.

    2. Make sure and check hughmundell.com also.

      1. I sure will, and thank for answering my question.

  11. DJ Meex says:

    Excellent work about an excellent song writer/singer mate, keep it up!

  12. Leonardo Sullivan says:

    I enjoyed reading the article, thank you. Hugh Mundell is a fantastic voice of Roots music. I was at his show at Top Rank suite in Birmingham Uk 17th Feb 1981 Sir Coxsone, Fatman, Studio City & Quaker City played too. It was an event, a must be at event. The venue was packed rasta man & woman The air was thick with sweet smell of marijuana and the vibe was love. Hugh came on stage dressed in Khaki shirt camouflage trousers and sang all his hits, part way through his mic cut out and we all waited, but thankfully the sound returned an Hugh continued singing for us. He was brilliant, such a presence and command of the stage. I feel blessed that l was able to witness him live.

  13. Zema says:

    Give thx for this!! I’m a HUGE Hugh Mundell fan!

  14. Pebble says:

    Wow! This blog post is so appreciated.

    Oh so envious of those who saw Hugh Mundell perform live!
    Thanks for the description Leonardo and big thanks to Midnight Raver Blog for this informative post. I’ve been desperate for info about Mundell’s life and work since the 1980s. He was truly a mystical, charismatic presence with the voice of an angel, so perfectly matched to roots reggae.
    It breaks my heart that he was murdered, and so young. The world lost a musical prodigy that could have given us so much more. A tragic waste of a young, gifted life.

    Funny reading about his lack of openness when interviewed, but let’s not forget how young he was and obviously deeply spiritual, maybe shy. Nothing wrong with keeping personal and not being a loud mouth or boaster.

    {Hugh was murdered by Rodrigo Codrington. From Wikipedia:
    “On Friday, 22 November 1985, Mr. Justice Downer sentenced 25-year-old Ricardo Codrington, labourer of Above Rocks, St. Andrew, to ten years imprisonment at hard labour for the murder of Hugh Mundell. The sentencing occurred after a Home Circuit Court found Codrigan guilty of manslaughter arising out of the fatal shooting of Mundell on 13 October 1983. Codrington was charged with murder, but the jury convicted him of the lesser offense. The Judge said Codrington had already served two years and that was taken into account when sentencing him.”}

    R.I.P to Hugh Mundell – your amazing, heartfelt music lives on in our hearts forever. Respect.

  15. Fabio Carvalho says:

    Thank you very much for all information about Hugh Mundell!
    I’m very much a fan of Hugh Mundell , i think number 1 in Brazil and I research everything about him.
    I would love to have gone to a live show.
    I would like to know if anyone has any Hugh Mundell concert videos and photos they can share!
    Very difficult to find videos with his live shows !

    Thanks and Nuff Respect !!! Jah guide ALL !!!

    R.I.P Hugh Mundell

    Fabio (fccarvalhorj@gmail.com)

  16. The correct lyric in ‘My Mind’ is:


  17. 1995 says:

    Hugh Mundell is one of my biggest inspirations. He lives on. Thank you for this

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